This cheat sheet summarizes commonly used Git command line instructions for quick reference.

#Getting Started

#Create a Repository

Create a new local repository

$ git init [project name]

Clone a repository

$ git clone git_url

Clone a repository into a specified directory

$ git clone git_url my_directory

#Make a change

Show modified files in working directory, staged for your next commit

$ git status

Stages the file, ready for commit

$ git add [file]

Stage all changed files, ready for commit

$ git add .

Commit all staged files to version history

$ git commit -m "commit message"

Commit all your tracked files to version history

$ git commit -am "commit message"

Discard changes in working directory which is not staged

$ git restore [file]

Unstage a staged file or file which is staged

$ git restore --staged [file]

Unstage a file, keeping the file changes

$ git reset [file]

Revert everything to the last commit

$ git reset --hard

Diff of what is changed but not staged

$ git diff

Diff of what is staged but not yet committed

$ git diff --staged

Apply any commits of current branch ahead of specified one

$ git rebase [branch]


Set the name that will be attached to your commits and tags

$ git config --global "name"

Set an email address that will be attached to your commits and tags

$ git config --global "email"

Enable some colorization of Git output

$ git config --global color.ui auto

Edit the global configuration file in a text editor

$ git config --global --edit

#Working with Branches

List all local branches

$ git branch

List all branches, local and remote

$ git branch -av

Switch to my_branch, and update working directory

$ git checkout my_branch

Create a new branch called new_branch

$ git checkout -b new_branch

Delete the branch called my_branch

$ git branch -d my_branch

Merge branchA into branchB

$ git checkout branchB
$ git merge branchA

Tag the current commit

$ git tag my_tag

#Observe your Repository

Show the commit history for the currently active branch

$ git log

Show the commits on branchA that are not on branchB

$ git log branchB..branchA

Show the commits that changed file, even across renames

$ git log --follow [file]

Show the diff of what is in branchA that is not in branchB

$ git diff branchB...branchA

Show any object in Git in human-readable format

$ git show [SHA]


Fetch down all the branches from that Git remote

$ git fetch [alias]

Merge a remote branch into your current branch to bring it up to date

$ git merge [alias]/[branch]
# No fast-forward
$ git merge --no-ff [alias]/[branch]
# Only fast-forward
$ git merge --ff-only [alias]/[branch]

Transmit local branch commits to the remote repository branch

$ git push [alias] [branch]

Fetch and merge any commits from the tracking remote branch

$ git pull

Merge just one specific commit from another branch to your current branch

$ git cherry-pick [commit_id]


Add a git URL as an alias

$ git remote add [alias] [url]

Show the names of the remote repositories you've set up

$ git remote

Show the names and URLs of the remote repositories

$ git remote -v

Remove a remote repository

$ git remote rm [remote repo name]

Change the URL of the git repo

$ git remote set-url origin [git_url]

#Temporary Commits

Save modified and staged changes

$ git stash

List stack-order of stashed file changes

$ git stash list

Write working from top of stash stack

$ git stash pop

Discard the changes from top of stash stack

$ git stash drop

#Tracking path Changes

Delete the file from project and stage the removal for commit

$ git rm [file]

Change an existing file path and stage the move

$ git mv [existing-path] [new-path]

Show all commit logs with indication of any paths that moved

$ git log --stat -M

#Ignoring Files


# "!" means don't ignore

/# Ignore Mac system files

# Ignore node_modules folder

# Ignore SASS config files

A .gitignore file specifies intentionally untracked files that Git should ignore

#Git Tricks

#Rename branch

  • #Renamed to new_name

    $ git branch -m <new_name>
  • #Push and reset

    $ git push origin -u <new_name>
  • #Delete remote branch

    ```shell script
    $ git push origin --delete <old>


Search change by content

$ git log -S'<a term in the source>'

Show changes over time for specific file

$ git log -p <file_name>

Print out a cool visualization of your log

$ git log --pretty=oneline --graph --decorate --all


List all branches and their upstreams

$ git branch -vv

Quickly switch to the previous branch

$ git checkout -

Get only remote branches

$ git branch -r

Checkout a single file from another branch

$ git checkout <branch> -- <file>

#Rewriting history

Rewrite last commit message

$ git commit --amend -m "new message"

Amend the latest commit without changing the commit message.

$ git commit --amend --no-edit

See also: Rewriting history

#Git Aliases

git config --global checkout
git config --global branch
git config --global commit
git config --global status

See also: More Aliases

#Advanced Git


Create a new submodule within your repository:

$ git submodule add <repository_url> <path>

Clone a repository and initialize its submodules:

$ git clone --recursive <repository_url>

Update all the submodules in your repository to the latest commit of their respective branches:

$ git submodule update

Pull the latest changes from the remote repositories of the submodules and update them in your main repository:

$ git submodule update --remote

Remove a submodule from your repository:

$ git submodule deinit <path>
$ git rm <path>
$ git commit -m "Removed submodule"


Cherry-picking allows you to apply a specific commit from one branch to another branch.

$ git cherry-pick <commit_hash>


Display the reflog, showing the history of HEAD and branch movements:

$ git reflog

Find the hash of the lost commit or branch using the reflog and then checkout to that hash to restore it:

$ git checkout <commit_or_branch_hash>