This cheat sheet is a crash course for Selenium beginners and help to get the idea about the basic concepts of Selenium.

#Getting Started

#Initialize Browser Drivers

Browser Syntax
Chrome WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
Edge WebDriver driver = new EdgeDriver();
Firefox WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
Safari WebDriver driver = new SafariDriver();

#Selenium Locators

Locator Syntax
className driver.findElement(By.className (“key”))
cssSelector driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(key"))
id driver.findElement("))
linkText driver.findElement(By.linkText(key"))
name driver.findElement(“key"))
partialLinkText driver.findElement(By.partialLinkText(“key"))
tagName driver.findElement(By.tagName (“key”))
xpath driver.findElement(By.xpath(“key"))

#Close all browser windows


#Close the current browser window

Description Syntax
Navigate to a new URL driver.navigate().to("");
Go forward to the next page driver.navigate().forward();
Go back to the previous page driver.navigate().back();
Refresh the current page driver.navigate().refresh();

#Frame Handling

Description Syntax
Switch to a frame driver.switchTo().frame("frameId");
Switch back to the main content driver.switchTo().defaultContent();


Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

// Used to click on the ‘OK’ button of the alert.

// Used when the ‘Cancel’ button is clicked in the alert box.

// Used to send text to an alert

// Used to capture the alert message.

#Mouse and Keyboard Actions

Actions actions = new Actions(driver);

// Shifts the mouse pointer to the center of the element and click on it

// Performs double click on the element

// Drags the element from one point and drops to another
actions.dragAndDrop(source, target).perform();

// Sends a series of keys to the element
actions.sendKeys(element, "text").perform();

#Page Information

// Get the page title

// Get the current page URL

// Get the entire page source code


// Explicit Wait :- These are conditional waits can be applied to satisfy a particular condition
WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, 10);
// Implicit Wait :- Once the command is run, Implicit Wait remains for the entire duration for which the browser is open.
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
// Fluent Wait :- Fluent Wait in Selenium marks the maximum amount of time for Selenium WebDriver to wait for a certain condition (web element) becomes visible. It also defines how frequently WebDriver will check if the condition appears before throwing the “ElementNotVisibleException”.
FluentWait wait = new FluentWait(driver);
//Specify the timeout of the wait
wait.withTimeout(5000, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
//Specify polling time
wait.pollingEvery(250, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
//Specify what exceptions to ignore
//This is how we specify the condition to wait on.